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«European Journal of Contemporary Education»
(Европейский журнал современного образования) – международный двуязычный научный журнал.

E-ISSN 2305-6746
Периодичность – 1 раз в 3 месяца.
Издается с 2012 года.

2 June 18, 2019


The Problems of Contemporary Education

1. Irina V. Alekseeva, Anna S. Frolikova, Helen A. Koltsova, Natalia A. Tereshchenko
Improving the Universal Competence of Intercultural Interaction among University Students by Means of Fine Arts: Case Study

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 265-279.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.265CrossRef

Abstract:
In this article the authors are substantiation the significance of the universal competence of intercultural interaction by means of the fine arts in the formation of the personality of students of the university. They are proving the urgency of the problem of this study. This problem is due to the versatility of the phenomenon of culture and art and the potential of its influence on the diverse spheres life of human. The development of intercultural interaction of students by means of the fine arts actively influences the self-determination of their personality. This allows students on the basis of cultural, spiritual, moral values to impose responsibility on themselves in decision-making in all spheres of life. This allows students to lay responsibility on themselves in making decisions in all spheres of life based on cultural, spiritual, moral values. Peculiarities of international cultures as a phenomenon of intercultural interaction are revealed through the fine arts, through artistic images. Theoretical research of intercultural interaction showed the lack of knowledge of the scientific and theoretical foundations of intercultural interaction as a universal competence by resources of fine arts. A chain of interrelated categories of intercultural interaction of the students' personality by means of the fine arts are determining by the authors of this article. The theoretical and experimental studies that were carried out convincingly prove the need for further to development and introduce into the educational process an innovative model of forming the universal competence of intercultural interaction of students of the university by resources of visual arts.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851503.pdf
Number of views: 299      Download in PDF


2. Natalia S. Godzhaeva, Timur A. Logunov, Marina S. Lokteva, Svetlana A. Zolotareva
Approaching CLIL from the Periphery: Integration of Content and Language in Russian Higher Education Institution

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 280-293.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.280CrossRef

Abstract:
One of the reasons for failure of education system to form developed FL skills in its graduates consists in the lack of L2 immersion and low motivation of learners. Integration of Content and Language (CLIL) in teaching content subjects is believed to be an efficient way of improving the situation. However, introducing CLIL techniques and approaches can by itself pose a new great challenge for a university. Our study shows a stable interest in both students and teachers coupled with a high degree of doubts and lack of preparedness when it comes to the actual prospect of their involvement in CLIL courses. In addition, the introduction of CLIL requires systematic changes in academic and administrative policies of Russian universities. The authors suggest that in such environment, the optimal solution would be a gradual introduction of CLIL elements focusing elaborated preparatory techniques. The paper presents the design of pilot project of step-by-step introduction of CLIL format studies in a Russian university and summarizes the results of pre- and post-experimental surveys among university students and teachers revealing their expectations, causes for their uncertainty and showing the need for specific FL learning activities which form a support system provided by language teachers to boost learners’ linguistic confidence. This introductory period calls for a special attention to the role of FL teachers and closer coordination of efforts between a content teacher and a language teacher.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851568.pdf
Number of views: 250      Download in PDF


3. Irina M. Kyshtymova, Natalia A. Rozhkova
Public Standing of a Teacher and Its Adjustment

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 294-302.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.294CrossRef

Abstract:
Public standing of a teacher is reflective of the customary social attitude towards the profession and associates with the efficiency of the professional practice. The dynamism of social processes determines the importance of defining modern criteria for the semantic categorization of teacher’s public standing, differences in the perception of students, parents and school teachers themselves, as well as improvement of the teacher’s indigenous creed. The Article presents the results of studies of particularities in the perception of the public standing of a teacher by high school students, their parents and school teachers (N = 150). Using the method of semantic differential and factor analysis, a categorical structure of the perception of a teacher’s public standing has been defined, including the factors of ‘kindness’, ‘competence’ and ‘prestige’. Verifiable group differences in the semantics of a ‘teacher’ were revealed in categorical criteria ‘competence’ (p ≤ 0.05). In the course of comparing particularities of perception of professional and personal public standing of school teachers, it was determined that personal self-esteem is significantly different from the professional one: educators perceive a ‘teacher’ as less kind, but more competent and prestigious than their ‘self’. In the process of adjustment work with school teachers (N = 50), which was based on the principle of outbound mediation of personal and professional introspection processes, there was a change in the teacher’s inner public esteem: bridging the distance between perception of a ‘teacher’ by teachers and students, as well as the convergence of its semantic evaluation with the self-esteem of teachers. The research results bring the need to find ways to increase the prestige of teachers' work in contemporary Russian society.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851622.pdf
Number of views: 212      Download in PDF


4. Ahmad M. Mahasneh, Ahmad M. Gazo, Omar A. Al-Adamat
Cultural Intelligence of the Jordan Teachers and University Students from the Hashemite University: Comparative Study

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 303-314.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.303CrossRef

Abstract:
The present study aimed at comparing the level of cultural intelligence among teachers and university students, and to define whether there are statistically significant differences in the level of cultural intelligence due to gender variables. The sample consisted of 300 teachers and 400 students at the Hashemite University, chosen by random selection, and data collected using the Cultural Intelligence Scale. Results of the study showed a high level of cultural intelligence among teachers and university students and also showed Statistically significant differences were also found in the levels of both cognitive and behavioral cultural intelligence attributed to teachers and university students, in favor of teachers. And statistically significant differences in the level of motivational cultural intelligence in favor of male teachers, and statistically significant differences in the level of behavioral cultural intelligence in favor of female teachers. The results of the study also showed statistically significant differences in the levels of cultural intelligence, meta-cognitive cultural intelligence, cognitive cultural intelligence and motivational cultural intelligence in favor of male students.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851695.pdf
Number of views: 218      Download in PDF


5. Roman S. Nagovitsyn, Elena G. Zamolotskikh, Irina I. Potashova, Lyudmila V. Rybakova
Model of the System of Raising the Social Status of the Teacher in the Region on the Basis of a Pedagogical University

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 315-327.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.315CrossRef

Abstract:
The social attractiveness and prestige of the teaching profession over the past twenty years have reached an extremely low level, despite the fact that the teaching profession is declared by the state as one of the most respected, honorable and responsible professions. The presented contradiction determined the purpose of the research: to develop a model of systemic improvement of the teacher’s social status in the region and experimentally prove the effectiveness of introducing its key component – an individually differentiated program to increase the motivation of students of a pedagogical university for the implementation of future professional activities in the training profile. In various types of experimental research participated (n = 1159) respondents: teachers (n = 23), part-time teachers (n = 48), students of the pedagogical institute (n = 1030), and graduates (n = 58). Experimental work was carried out from 2016 to 2018 based on the analysis of scientific literature, the collection of official information, sociological and comparative methods, questioning, interviews, modeling, analysis and formulation of relevant conclusions. Statistical processing of research results was carried out using chi-square at (p <0.05), which was used for the quantitative analysis of experimental data. Based on the identification of economic, labor, professional-cultural and legal directions of raising the status of a teacher, an integrated model of a system of individual integrated solutions has been developed. The study substantiates the effectiveness of introducing its key component – an individually-differentiated program, including synergistic interaction of all departments of the university for the implementation of educational activities in five groups of students: “teacher-innovator”, “teacher-educator”, “teacher-manager”, “teacher-entrepreneur”, “teacher-scientist”. The authoring development and technological aspects of its implementation in order to systematically improve the social status of a teacher in the region will open a new direction for the development of research in pedagogical science and will allow an increase in the indicators of professional growth of teachers in the Federal Project “Teacher of the Future”.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851764.pdf
Number of views: 211      Download in PDF


6. Marina A. Pastushkova, Oxana V. Savateeva, Alla A. Trotsenko, Dmitry A. Savateev
The Practical Guidelines for Implementing Modular Training in Higher Education

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 328-337.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.328CrossRef

Abstract:
The article presents comparative analysis of modular training as a teaching tool against traditional methods and techniques in educational institutions, particularly in higher education. Being one of the forms of interactive learning, modular training ensures efficient intermutual development of all members of educational process. It increases active learning and improves critical thinking, as well as problem solving skills. Based on several years of experimental research this article gives recommendations on modular training for improving knowledge in emergency first aid treatment for students of various educational institutions. It also briefly describes the algorithm of introducing elements of modular training for implementation of Health and Safety course.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851821.pdf
Number of views: 227      Download in PDF


7. Olga V. Rogach, Elena V. Frolova, Tatyana M. Ryabova
Trajectories of Building a Career of a Teacher within Academic Competition

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 338-347.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.338CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the values, motives, preferences and expectations of teachers of Russian universities through the prism of the choice of the trajectory of building their career. The sample for the study was formed by 36 experts – the representatives of the academic staff of Russian universities, who took part in a focus group survey. In order to validate the presented toolset, the results of the focus group interview were concretized with the data of in-depth interview, which made it possible to formulate a description of the limitations and possibilities in achieving the career goals of teachers in higher education. According to the results of the study, it has been concluded that the career strategies of a university lecturer are based on the intersection of three areas: advance of academic degree and academic title; obtaining an administrative position within the framework of “merit system”. Based on the survey materials, the time, financial and emotional costs of building a career have been determined. The assessment of the degree of their “payback” is differentiated depending on the level of motivation, personal ambitions and a number of other conditions. The utmost effectiveness and justification of costs is achieved at the intersection of two career trajectories (degree and merit), which is due to the devaluation of the value of the administrative resource. The stereotypes and value-normative attitudes of the academic staff in some cases block the mechanisms of the university’s motivational policy. The article reveals the role of institutional factors determining the process of building a teacher’s career, defines the significance of such aspects as value-normative, motivational-stimulating, synergistic.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851943.pdf
Number of views: 212      Download in PDF


8. Alexey D. Rybkin, Veronika M. Grebennikova
The Role of Creativity in the Process of Competitive Teacher Training Subject to Russian Professional Standard Requirements

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 348-356.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.348CrossRef

Abstract:
This article provides research results concerning the influence of creative qualities on teacher’s general competitiveness level. We examined the pedagogical experiment results in strengthening teacher’s competitiveness in the context of personal creative qualities development. The structure of uniquely designed creativity development program as competitiveness determinant in would be teachers was introduced. Its basic characteristics were also reviewed. Obtained data allowed to confirm the role of creativity as competitiveness determinant in would be teachers. Objective measuring tools made it possible to observe positive changes in experimental group in the context of increased competitiveness level as a result of influence on a person’s creative qualities. The results confirm the correct choice of competitiveness components and formation model of the quality under discussion in pedagogical process, which was carried out in creativity formation program as competitiveness determinant in would be teachers and the process of its implementation.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560851993.pdf
Number of views: 204      Download in PDF


9. Maria M. Susloparova, Larisa N. Ponomarenko, Andrey N. Kibishev, Irina V. Romanova
Formation of Cognitive Motivation in Junior School Age Children in Institutions of Supplementary Education

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 357-369.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.357CrossRef

Abstract:
The article presents conceptual ideas, experience and results of the formation of cognitive motivation in junior-school age group children in extracurricular activities institutions. Such ideas include the junior school-age children motivation's structure, characteristics, basic pedagogical conditions, educational contents, and the criteria of the cognitive motivation's formation. Novelty of the presented research is in defining the realization mechanism of pedagogical conditions for the formation of cognitive motivation in children of junior school age at institutions of supplementary education. The mechanism is based on equal relations and participation of children, parents and the pedagogue, it includes three interlocked stages: motivational-stimulating, substantive, and reflexive-evaluative. In the course of research, conventional theoretical methods as well empirical methods were used, the preferred one of which was a pedagogical experiment. The authors explored the specifics of the formation of cognitive motivation in junior school age children in institutions of supplementary education. The results of the study proved the effectiveness of the proposed concept of the formation of cognitive motivation in junior students. Finally, it was concluded that the proposed concept is feasible and promising. The developed and experimentally tested pedagogical conditions for the formation of cognitive motivation in junior school age children can be widely used in institutions of supplementary education.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560852066.pdf
Number of views: 207      Download in PDF


10. Ekaterina A. Vetrova, Elena E. Kabanova, Natalia V. Medvedeva, Evgeniya E. Jukova
Management of Educational Services Promotion in the Field of Higher Education (the Example of "Russian State Social University")

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 370-377.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.370CrossRef

Abstract:
The present article describes the main tools for promoting the educational services in the Russian State Social University, such as advertising in the media, outdoor advertising, exhibitions and fairs, open days, master classes, round tables, conferences and seminars, internet advertising, social networks, communities in social networks, and university website. The main difficulties faced by the experts in the field of marketing of educational services of "Russian State Social University" were studied. The peculiarities of attracting applicants to certain higher educational institutions in Russia are the most interesting, in connection with changes in the structure of the recruitment of applicants to educational institutions of higher professional education of the Russian Federation. In recent years, quite a lot of measures have been taken in the development of marketing communications of educational institutions. But usually these measures do not work, because every year there is a reduction in budget places for the most popular training areas among the applicants. In this regard, a well-developed analysis of existing approaches in the field of promoting educational services, and identifying the most effective educational marketing directions necessary for the formation of a positive image of universities is indispensable.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560852194.pdf
Number of views: 201      Download in PDF


11. Ján Záhorec, Alena Hašková, Michal Munk
Teachers’ Professional Digital Literacy Skills and Their Upgrade

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 378-393.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.378CrossRef

Abstract:
In the paper there are presented results of a research inquiry of current state and perspectives of primary and lower level of secondary school teachers´ professional development (ISCED1 – ISCED3) in Slovakia with a focus on improvement and further development of their didactic technological competences. In frame of the presented reseach significance of the use of the digital means and various interactive educational activities in teaching processes to increase the efficiency of education was assessed. This significance was assessed from the point of view of different aspects of the education process. Analysis of the specified aspects of the teaching process, from the point of view of which the contribution of the use of the digital means in teaching processes, was done on the baises of a screening of teachers´opinions, in dependance on the segmentation factors sub-category of the teaching staff and length of teaching practice of the teacher.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560852475.pdf
Number of views: 205      Download in PDF


12. Teresa Zamora-Lobato, Arturo García-Santillán, Violetta S. Molchanova
Factorial Analysis to Measure Anxiety towards Mathematics: an Empirical Study in High School

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 394-408.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.394CrossRef

Abstract:
The aim of study focused in identify if there are a set of variables that explain the level of anxiety towards mathematics in Telebachillerato students. For this, the test designed by Muñoz and Mato-Vázquez (2007) was used. The test comprises by 24 items with 5 dimensions. In order to get data, were surveyed 201 regular students enrolled in the academic year 2018. The reliability and internal consistency of the instrument is α= 0.7921 in this study. The main findings show that the level of anxiety towards mathematics in the students is generated into the institution because the evaluations and their temporality are given precisely in the classrooms where numbers and mathematical operations are study.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560852580.pdf
Number of views: 214      Download in PDF


13. Sergei I. Belentsov, Veronika A. Gribanova, Nadezhda V. Tarasova, Tat'yana Y. Kopylova
Conditions and Factors of the Development of Creative Civic Engagement of Students

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 409-417.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.409CrossRef

Abstract:
The authors deal with the conditions and factors of the development of creative civic engagement of students. The article contains the results of the experimental work on forming the creative civic engagement of students during studying the discipline, which is called: "The Basics of Camp Counseling". The work on forming the creative civic engagement consists of such directions as: the formation of the theoretical readiness for manifestation of the creative civic engagement when working as camp counselors (informing students about the basics of civic engagement, camp counselors activities); formation of practical readiness to work as a camp counselor (participation in the results-oriented activities which are built on an optimistic attitude and emotional inclusion); formation of personal willingness for manifestation of creative civic engagement when working as camp counselors (the students’ involvement in the action which demands using personal qualities of a civically engaged young individual). The materials of the research can be used as the recommendations to questions of the organization of upbringing work in the university, as the accompaniment of the module or the discipline "The Basics of Camp Counseling".

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560856667.pdf
Number of views: 210      Download in PDF


The History of Education

14. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Larisa A. Koroleva, Ludmila G. Zimovets
Development of the School Education System in the Province of Vologda (1725–1917). Part 2

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 418-424.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.418CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the origin and development of the school system on the territory of Vologda province in 1725–1917. In the second part of the study, the authors examine the development of the public education system from the end of the 1840 to 1864. In solving research problems, both general scientific methods (concretization and generalization) and traditional methods of historical analysis were used. The authors used the historical-situational method, which involves the study of historical facts in the context of the era in conjunction with the “neighboring” events and facts. Additionally, pre-revolutionary studies on the history of pedagogy, as well as modern Russian scientific literature, were brought in as materials. In conclusion, the authors noted that the system of public education in Vologda province from the late 1840s to 1864 continued to develop actively. At this time, the idea of teaching literacy to the younger generation begins to penetrate into the consciousness of the peasantry. As a result, not only a variety of educational institutions appears, but also ways of teaching children with the help of private hiring of teachers are becoming common. The first private public library appeared in the early 1860s and it also contributed to the spread of literacy.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560856693.pdf
Number of views: 211      Download in PDF


15. Dmytro V. Kudinov, Sergey I. Degtyarev, Lybov G. Polyakova, Jasmin Gut
Educational Process in Ancient Rome Schools

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 425-436.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.425CrossRef

Abstract:
The relevance of this study is attributable to the influence of ancient school on the further development of European education. The focus of the publication is the organization of learning process in Latin schools. The historiographic base of the research is represented by profound scientific works on the history of pedagogy. Among them are the studies of T. Mommsen, K. Schmidt, J. Ussing, J. Paroz, L. Winniczuk and G. Zhurakovsky. The source base is represented by original works of Roman poets and theologians, including those with a memoir context: works of Seneca and Pliny the Younger, studies and letters of Quintilian, Tacitus, Cicero, Plutarch, Suetonius, literary works of Martial, Horace, Ausonius, Plautus, Apuleius. The publication presents a comprehensive review of the education system of ancient Rome: the main types of educational institutions are identified, the contents of the education is revealed, the methods and means of teaching activity are indicated, the role of physical influence on pupils in the Latin school is specified. Some innovative approaches of Roman school, which are still relevant nowadays are specified – the organization of educational competitions, rewards for successes, group methods of work, practical approach to the content of education (on the principle of reproduction of connections to life), thoughts paraphrasing, phonological exercises, etc. In the end, it is concluded that three-tiered Roman education consistently provided students with knowledge relevant to their time. Under the Republic, its content was aimed at future success in the realization of private, public or state affairs. Moreover, a characteristic feature in middle and higher stages of Roman school was bilingualism.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560852979.pdf
Number of views: 227      Download in PDF


16. Olga N. Malykhina, Irina V. Ilyina, Gulsina A Grevtseva, Valery Okulich-Kazarin
Management of Process of Training in Reading in Russia at the end of XIX – the beginning of the ХХth centuries: Foreign Aspect

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 437-444.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.437CrossRef

Abstract:
Foreign pedagogical ideas, subjected to careful study and criticism from public figures, scientists, teachers of Russia, contribute to the development of russian methods of teaching reading in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The issue of borrowing Western pedagogical ideas was widely discussed in the works of prominent thinkers in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. Public speeches, critical reviews, publications on teaching philological subjects in general and teaching reading in particular, cannot do without reference to foreign authors. Many articles in pedagogical journals present a comparative description of various aspects of pedagogical activity in Russia and abroad on various issues. The systems of education abroad, which pay attention to learning to read, are described in detail. The following questions are acute: the volume of foreign languages in educational programs (especially in real schools); the place of foreign literature in the circle of school reading. This discussion drew public attention to reading, encouraged learners to read the authors mentioned, and contributed to the development of reader interest in General. The formation of pedagogical principles of teaching reading in a professional environment continued. Recommendations developed by russian and foreign teachers (especially the USA) and are reflected in Ignatiev's education reform project in 1915-1916. This is public participation in the administrative management of the school, granting autonomy to the school, affirming the need to introduce universal, free and compulsory primary education, joint education of children.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560853049.pdf
Number of views: 199      Download in PDF


17. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Sergey D. Ludwig, Natal'ya V. Miku, Aude Médico
The German System of Public Education in the Period between the 15th and early 20th centuries. Part 1

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 445-453.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.445CrossRef

Abstract:
This paper explores the origins of the German public education system. This part of the work provides an analysis of the formation process of the German primary education system between the 15th and 18th centuries. Also, this paper explores the use of philosophical approaches in German education, and examines the impact of Protestantism on the process of creation of the German primary education system. The study is grounded on a body of related research and special literature. In effect, its methodological basis is based on the principles of historicism, research objectivity, and systemicity, which are traditional in historiography. The authors employed the following key methods: (1) problem-chronological, which helped explore certain facts in the evolution of the German system of public education in the context of the then-existing historical situation; (2) historical-comparative, which helped compare the objectives for introducing a network of schools in the Protestant and Catholic zones of the German empire. The authors conclude by noting that during the period between the 15th and 18th centuries German pedagogy had its ups and downs. A setback to the fledging effort to establish a system of public education, first undertaken back in the 15th century, was the Thirty Years’ War. German regions were divided based on religion – paradoxical as it may sound, it is this division that actually gave rise to competition for congregation. Ultimately, this acted as a key driver in the process of creating an extensive network of primary schools.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560853141.pdf
Number of views: 220      Download in PDF


18. Artyom Y. Peretyatko, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade
«66 % of Literacy Among the Male Population of School Age Brings it Closer to Common Education» vs «in the Largest Villages, it was Difficult to Meet a Literate Person»: the Main Statistical Indicators of Primary Education Among Don Cossacks in the XIX Ce

European Journal of Contemporary Education, 2019, 8(2): 454-465.
DOI: 10.13187/ejced.2019.2.454CrossRef

Abstract:
The question about the degree of development of primary education in the Don in the XIX century remains controversial among historians. Archival documents and testimonies of contemporaries allow us to cover this question in completely different ways (both quotes in the title are taken from them). The article attempts to summarize statistical information about the development of primary education in the Don Cossack environment from 1799 to 1899. A number of myths prevalent in historiography (for example, about the significant role of zemstvos in the creation of new educational institutions in villages or about the crisis of Don education in 1880−1890) are debunked.

URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560853205.pdf
Number of views: 201      Download in PDF


19.
full number
URL: http://ejournal1.com/journals_n/1560856755.pdf
Number of views: 447      Download in PDF





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